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The Third Edition of this best-selling text continues to familiarize electricians with the intricate details of performing electrical installations in hazardous locations.
Table of contents

Hazarouds Area Standards List | IEC BS EN | - Present

In Canada the government agency responsible is the Standards Council of Canada. Standards Council of Canada has authorized a group of testing laboratories to certify equipment.

At this time the following laboratories are authorized. In addition to these two government agencies both countries have state, city and county inspectors that may or may not accept the national standards. Hazardous locations are classified by NEC definitions. The following are interpretations of these classifications and applications.


  • Effective Project Management Traditional, Adaptive.
  • Hazardous Areas;
  • Basic Concepts and Methodology.
  • Wiring Outside the Classified Area.
  • Electromagnetic Scattering and its Applications.

Class I locations are those in which inflammable gases or vapors are or may be present in sufficient quantities to produce explosive or flammable mixtures. It may be present continuously, intermittently, periodically or during normal repair or maintenance operations, or those areas where a breakdown in processing equipment releases hazardous vapors with the simultaneous failure of electrical equipment.

Normally they will be confined within closed containers or in closed systems from which they can escape only in the case of rupture or deterioration of the containers or systems. CLASS II, DIVISION 1 Class II, Division 1 locations include areas where combustible dust may be in suspension in the air under normal conditions in sufficient quantities to produce explosive or ignitable mixtures Dust may be emitted into the air continuously, intermittently or periodically , or where failure or malfunction of equipment might cause a hazardous location to exist and provide an ignition source with the simultaneous failure of electrical equipment, included also are locations in which combustible dust of an electrically conductive nature may be present.

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Wiring Requirements in Hazardous Locations

The user is responsible for system assessment. The difference is performance under fault conditions:. It is mainly used for instrumentation and exposed measurement devices.

If that space contains equipment that emits gas, it prevents an explosive atmosphere by using a continuous flow of protective gas to dilute the atmosphere. The compound provides a barrier between the electrical apparatus and the explosive atmosphere. In addition, a fault is unlikely to cause ignition.

Classification scheme

The classifications define the required safety level for equipment installed in these locations. Go back to overview. These standards: Classify hazards; Areas Zones in which hazards may be present; Protection used to prevent explosions in these areas IEC series.


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It describes permissible electrical installations for residential, commercial and industrial uses. Article , within the NEC. Hazardous Areas Hazardous areas or locations are where the potential for fire or explosion exists because of gases, dust, or easily ignitable fibers or filings in the atmosphere. Explosion Protection Techniques The following describes explosion protection techniques to enable the use of electrical equipment in hazardous areas.

Electrical installations in hazardous locations

National certifying or approvals authorities ensure design compliance. National inspectorates or insurance companies vet and usually inspect each installation. Equipment using this protection method is: Marked Ex d; Suitable for Zone 1 and Zone 2 hazardous areas. The difference is performance under fault conditions: Ex ia systems are safe even with 2 faults; Ex ib systems are safe with 1 fault; Ex ic systems are safe in normal operation no fault. Equipment using this protection method is: Marked Ex p; Suitable for Zone 1 and Zone 2 hazardous areas.


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Equipment using this protection method is: Marked Ex e; Suitable for Zone 1 and Zone 2 hazardous areas. Equipment using this protection method is: Marked Ex o; Suitable for Zone 1 and Zone 2 hazardous areas.