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In this example, the player character Manny 7 How the riddle is integrated to the game world will be discussed later. Tim Schafer describes the sequence of events that form the puzzle: The cask roller guy dumps Mannys cask off in the basement, picks up a full cask with the forklift, and goes back to sleep upstairs. Manny can ride the elevator up and down to his hearts content, but its an express elevator. It only goes all the way to the top, and all the way to the bottom.

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In the middle, Manny sees a secret [open] floor which must be the vault, but he can not get the elevator to stop on this floor. Since the structure of the fiction puzzle is essentially the same as that of the riddle, the puzzle in question should be transformable into a riddle-like form.

The first two verses could go something like this: In this way, The elevator stops between the floors; These verses are not much of a riddle yet; they merely pose the dilemma at hand. For the two verses, an answer could be many things, for instance, breaking the elevator circuit while between the floors. But in the context of Grim Fandango, there is only one correct solution: So, while the elevator is passing the secret hallway, going up, Manny drives the forklift so its blades stick out of the elevator door, catching on the roof of the secret hallway, and stopping the elevator dead.

Like the solutions of riddles are related to the systematic worlds they constitute Montfort , so are the solutions of fiction puzzles related to their story context. Finding a solution to a fiction puzzle requires one to make a connection between specific components and actions available in the fictional situation; which in this case means connecting two components to a single action: the forklift blades C1 and the up-going elevator C2 to forklift driving A1.

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In one sense, C1, C2 and A1 may be rephrased to complete the elevator riddle: In this way, The elevator stops between the floors; A ride up will make things easier; A ride within a ride, A lift within a lift. The experimental riddle demonstrates how entities and affordances of story worlds can also be read as hints that bear resemblance to the structure of the riddle. Obviously, how evident these hints are is a matter of ad hoc estimation.

The setting may provide so many functional components that the correct ones do not stand out as proper hints, yet this concerns riddles too. Not all riddles are flawless or cleverly structured. Figure 2. Discobolus of Myron. Circa BCE. National Museum of Rome, Italy. Finally, it is indeed worth asking in what way the elevator puzzle is expressive. With reference to Montfort, it was earlier stated that fiction puzzles have a riddle-like structure and are hence best at providing the solver with recognition of perception and thought.

While the previous example guided the solver to recognize the relations connected to the concept of youth, the elevator puzzle does not appear to deal with the same ambition. Despite its simplistic appearance, the elevator puzzle represents the most profound mode of puzzle expression.

It does not convey a specific idea like the riddle from Beyond Zork, but it makes the player aware of everyday relations of objects through the story world. By requiring one to apply everyday logic to the fictional situation, it links the real world to the fictional one, thereby providing the solver with a small experience of recognition. Like the classic Greek sculpture Discobolus of Myron fig. For a moment, the player can see through the minds eye the inner nature of some specific thing. Danesi Expressive communication, in Deweys opinion, is rarely the intent of an artist, and when it occasionally is, it only limits the expressiveness of the artwork The Aesthetic Value of Fiction Puzzles Since puzzles are aesthetic objects, solvers pass value judgments on them.

Those judgments are a question of art criticism. Throughout ages, evaluation has been the subject of many critics and theorists of artincluding the author for which the topic of aesthetic value is a natural part of puzzle aesthetics as well. He establishes the concept of aesthetic index, which is to indicate the aesthetic value of puzzles: The aesthetic index of a puzzle, as it may be called, seems to be inversely proportional to the complexity of its solution or to the obviousness of the pattern, trap, or trick it hides.

Simply put, the longer and more complicated the answer to a puzzle, or the more obvious it is, the less. But she also speculates how the solution might contribute a significant element which adds to the experience of inhabiting an alternative realityby which she might signify the same idea presented here.

In early adventure games, the players performance was in fact commonly evaluated by the game. Players were able to solve puzzles in alternative ways, and their performance ultimately constructed an overall score. For instance, in Kings Quest II: Romancing the Throne Sierra, players are rewarded with more points if they solve the puzzle of entering a boat by tricking the boatman instead of simply paying him.

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Humble Puzzles with simple yet elegant solutions, or puzzles that hide a nonobvious principle, have a higher aesthetic index. In short, aesthetic index appears to present two criteria against which puzzles ought to be evaluated: elegance and difficulty. For Danesi, an ideal puzzle is elegant, and not too easy.

This section will suggest that difficulty should not be taken into consideration when evaluating fiction puzzles. Instead, the aesthetic value of fiction puzzles should construct exclusively of elegance, which is divided into an elegance of form and an elegance of content.

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Edward Strickland 4 starts his survey of Minimalism with a solid definition: Minimalism is a style distinguished by severity of means, clarity of form, and simplicity of structure and texture. In this respect, the formal elegance puzzles refers to three factors: i1 The purity of means of solving solution does not entail exceptional knowledge. These formal criteria are to be understood in the same way as Monroe Beardsleys objective reasons for evaluating artworks: The aesthetic value formal elegance is always improved when fulfilling these criteria, and it is never improved when not fulfilling them.

Accordingly, a puzzle being clear does not mean that it is of high aesthetic value formally elegant , but the feature will always make the puzzle aesthetically more valuable formally elegant.

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Ultimately, formally elegant puzzles provide enriched aesthetic experiences for all solvers when compared to puzzles with less formal elegance if their elegance of content is equal. Formally elegant puzzles are not necessarily of high aesthetic value. The mathematical puzzle What is greater than three but smaller than five? Consider another mathematical challenge , which is also formally articulate, but again, not elegant. Despite coherent form, both cases lack content that would provoke an urge in most solvers to face the challenge; and this content evidently relates to difficulty.

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Difficulty is a problematic concept to evaluate. Since a given task is never equally challenging to all players Juul 94 , it seems contradictory to pass value judgments on challenges. Whereas some solvers find a puzzle too difficult, others find it is too easy. Too difficult challenges disintegrate the experience; too easy ones never even trigger it. The dilemma is not exclusive to puzzles and games, but concerns arts in general. Whereas for an advanced art critic some allegories seem too obvious, and hence do not produce an aesthetic experience, the same allegories may well please less refined viewers and provide them with strong aesthetic experiences.

But while obviousness and difficulty no doubt affect aesthetic experiences, they cannot be measured as definite quantities. They exist only in relation to the viewer the player , her surroundings, and the other elements of the artwork.

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For different people in different situations and in the contexts of different artworks, the same level of obviousness or difficulty has different aesthetic significance. Instead of speculating with the concept of difficulty, it is more constructive to focus on art forms unique aspects that form their contexts in which difficulty functions as well. When it comes to the specific context of fiction puzzles, Tronstad provides some related thoughts. As she also speaks of 11 The division could be applicable to game challenges in general.

Ultimately, to evaluate the elegance of content of fiction puzzles, three criteria are submitted: ii1 Logicality in the story world. The criteria will be examined respectively in the next three subsections. The given examples will also touch on the criteria of the elegance of form. Logicality in the Story World All story worlds have their own rules.

Although they typically follow the rules of the real world, the abstraction of simulation confirms that no story world is identical with the real one. The level of abstraction is the level on which the player can act Juul , and the player can never act as freely as she does outside the game. For this reason, the logic of a fiction puzzle is always in relation to the abstraction, that is, to the unique rules of the particular world it is integrated to. While the game simulates the real world to a large extent, the point-andclick interface does not follow the laws of physics. Since the games primary method for overcoming challenges is manipulating objects, the player character Guybrush Threepwood is able to carry objects without having to worry about their weight. In this particular world, the objects in Guybrushs possession cease to weigh anything, and so he ends up carrying books, ropes, shovels and swords without difficulty moving.

At one point, Guybrush gets thrown into the sea with a heavy weight tied to him with a thin rope fig. There are several sharp objects around to cut the rope with, but not close enough for him to reach. Obviously, the solution is simply to pick up the weight, as in Guybrushs pocket it loses its heaviness. In this way, the solution employs the exceptional physics of the story world; directing the player to initially consider the option that would be logical in the real worldreaching for the sharp objectsbut letting her eventually figure the way out via the unique means of the story world.

She calls this criterion as metaphorical tension after Dan Pagis. The case fulfills the other criteria of elegance as well. At this point of the game, each player knows how the interface works so they must have the knowledge required for the solution i1. Resolving the situation is an actual event in the story, for which the puzzle is also integrated to the story world flawlessly ii2. Lastly, the solution is as brief as possible, as it entails nothing but using a single pick up command i3.

The case appears also relatively easy, which confirms that elegance does not necessarily depend on difficulty.

Its contribution to the integral experience does not derive from the actual struggle against the obstruction, but from the coherent harmony of its form and content. It intensifies the experience by making the player become more aware of the storys original setting; letting her know that the game does not merely try to simulate reality but functions through its own rules ii3. Yet the artistic freedom in employing a unique logic may also exceed the limit. Tronstad presents a simple method for estimating whether the line is crossed or not: One of the characteristics of a good riddle or puzzle is that after weve solved it or even been told its solution this solution will appear obvious to us.

If the solution still appears farfetched it is simply not a very good puzzle. Let the method be applied to an exceptionally obscure puzzle in Simon the Sorcerer 3D Headfirst Productions, Since the game does not imply the causality between worlds, the solution does not appear logical. Consequently, the puzzle cannot be considered elegant when it comes to the criterion of logic. Level of Integration to the Story World Fiction puzzles are integrated to story worlds. Without any integration, a puzzle is not a fiction puzzle but a metafictional one. What defines the level of integration is how strongly a fiction puzzle and its solution are related to the existents of the story world.

Puzzle integration relates closely to what David Bordwell and Katie Thompson call diegetic elements of film. Streets, skyscrapers, people and the sounds they make are all diegetic elements because they exist in the world that the film depicts. On the contrary, films often include music, narration and credit texts that are extraneous, i. These elements are nondiegetic. When it comes to fiction puzzles, their level of integration depends largely on the extent to which they can be considered diegetic.